The Spain captain was named in the starting line-up in Oslo for the Euro 2020 qualifier by coach Robert Moreno, 14 years since making his debut in a 3-0 friendly win over China.
The 33-year-old was part of the Spain sides which lifted the 2010 World Cup, Euro 2008 and Euro 2012 titles.
He took over the Spain captaincy in 2016 after goalkeeper Casillas' final match.
The centre-back equalled Casillas' mark of 167 games last month against the Faroe Islands.
"All that is personal is a little secondary," said Ramos after the game.
"I would have happily traded this 168th cap for a victory. It was not the case. But this record is a great reward after so many years and it's a great source of huge pride.
"I am emotional every time I put on this shirt. That will not change and I hope to continue doing so for many years."
Ramos is now only eight caps short of the European record held by Italian stopper Gianluigi Buffon (176) and 16 adrift of Egyptian Ahmed Hassan's world record of 184.