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Details on number of subjects & lessons for primary schools after the ministry's new reforms

The Ministry of Education, in collaboration with KICD, has trimmed down the learning area across all primary school levels within the framework of the CBC. Here are the details of the lessons & subjects that primary students will attend and take respectively.

Education Cabinet Secretary Ezekiel Machogu

In a bid to enhance the implementation of the Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC), the Ministry of Education, in collaboration with the Presidential Working Party on Education Reform (PWPER), has introduced significant changes to the learning areas across various levels of the education system.

This move, aimed at addressing issues of content overload, gaps, and overlaps, is part of ongoing efforts to improve the quality of education in Kenya.

The PWPER, in its report on the implementation of CBC, recommended a reduction in the number of learning areas for both lower and upper primary schools.


The goal is to create a more focused and integrated curriculum that facilitates a comprehensive understanding of subjects.

According to the recommendations, the learning areas for Pre-Primary, Lower Primary, Upper Primary, Junior School, and Senior School have specific limits to ensure a balanced and effective curriculum.


For Pre-Primary (PP1-PP2), the PWPER has maintained the five learning areas, ensuring consistency with the existing structure.

The learning areas include Language Activities, Mathematical Activities, Creative Activities, Environmental Activities, Religious Activities, and the Pastoral/Religious Instruction Programme.

In Lower Primary (Grades 1-3), the number of learning areas has been reduced from nine to seven.


Notably, Agriculture and aspects of Home Science have been integrated into a composite subject called Agriculture and Nutrition, streamlining the curriculum. Additionally, Creative Arts now includes aspects of Art, Craft, Music, and Physical Education with seven lessons per week.

The changes aim to enhance the comprehensibility of subjects and reduce content overload.


Similarly, in Upper Primary (Grades 4-6), the learning areas have been reduced from ten to eight.

Agriculture and Home Science have been amalgamated into Agriculture and Nutrition, while Creative Arts encompasses various artistic elements.

These changes are designed to optimise learning experiences and create a more cohesive curriculum for students.

The recommendations extend to Junior School (Grades 7-9), where the learning areas have been reduced from fourteen to nine.


Core subjects will be taken by all learners, and the integration of subjects like Integrated Science and Health Education into a single learning area called Integrated Science is intended to provide a holistic understanding of related concepts.

Other subjects, such as Social Studies and Life Skills Education, have also been integrated for a more streamlined curriculum.

To promote a more holistic approach to education, the Ministry of Education has integrated Physical Education and Sports, Visual Arts, and Performing Arts into a composite subject known as Creative Arts and Sports.


This innovative approach aims to nurture students' creativity and physical well-being.

The Ministry has clarified that Other Languages (Foreign, Sign Language, and Indigenous Language) will be implemented as non-formal programs, remaining non-examinable at the Junior School level.


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