Turkana is the second largest (after Marsabit County) and also the northwestern most county in Kenya.
It is bordered by the countries of Uganda to the west; South Sudan and Ethiopia, including the disputed Ilemi Triangle, to the north and northeast; and Lake Turkana to the east. To the south and east, neighbouring counties in Kenya are West Pokot, Baringo and Samburu Counties, while Marsabit County is located on the opposite (i.e. eastern) shore of Lake Turkana.
Four sites of Stone Age cultures are situated upon tributaries along the west side of Lake Turkana in West Turkana; at Lokalalei, Kokiselei and Nadung, and became of interest to archaeology beginning sometime during 1988.
The earliest late Stone age industries in prehistory were found in Turkana, at the site of Lomekwi, and date to 3,300,000 years.
At the archaeological site of Nataruk, in Southwest Turkana, scientists have discovered the oldest evidence of inter-group conflict in the past, establishing that warfare occurred between groups of hunter-gatherers.
Direct influence by colonial forces, in the form of pacification within the district began in 1900 and ended in 1918.
During 1926, the entire Turkana people were subjugated to a body of the British military, who subsequently restricted their movements to an area of Kenya, forcing these to settle in the area known now as Turkana county.
During 1958, the district experienced an influx of a number of people classified as belonging to the Turkana people. These had been expelled from the Kenyan town of Isiolo, and forcibly relocated to the Turkana district by the British colonial administration.
The district maintained an all but complete isolation until 1976 when road-blocks leading to the district were lifted.
In 2000, the people in the north of the county were reported as being harassed by marauding Ethiopians, and were consequently forced to relocate in southern areas.
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