The much-travelled Crouch, who spent the second half of last season at Burnley, made his English league debut in 2000 at QPR and also played for Liverpool, Tottenham and Stoke.
He made his England debut against Colombia in May 2005 and went on to play 42 times for the Three Lions, scoring 22 goals.
The forward, who is a towering 2.01 metres tall, confirmed his retirement on Twitter, writing: "After a lot of deliberation this summer I have decided to retire from football! Our wonderful game has given me everything.
"I'm so thankful to everyone who helped me get there and to help me stay there for so long.
"If you told me at 17 I'd play in World Cups, get to a Champions League final, win the FA Cup and get 100 @premierleague goals I would have avoided you at all costs.
"It's been an absolute dream come true."
Former England striker Alan Shearer wrote on Twitter: "Congrats big man, a brilliant career and good luck going forward."
Current England players Harry Maguire and Jack Butland, a teammate of Crouch's during his time at Stoke, also paid tribute to the striker.
Maguire wrote: "Incredible career. Enjoy retirement."
Butland added: "Been an honour to play and share a dressing room with you big man @petercrouch best of luck in the next stage of your career."
Crouch played at the 2006 World Cup and scored his first competitive goal for England during a 2-0 group-stage victory against Trinidad and Tobago. He was also selected for the 2010 World Cup in South Africa.