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14 radical proposals from Ruto's education reforms & how they affect students

Among the proposals are reduction in subjects & mandatory community service for students before employment

President William Ruto receiving a report from the Presidential Working Party on Education Reforms at State House on August 1, 2023

President William Ruto was presented with a comprehensive set of education reform recommendations aimed at revamping Kenya's education system and making it more accessible, inclusive, and aligned with the evolving needs of students and the job market.

The recommendations were handed over to President Ruto during a high-level meeting at State House with the Presidential Working Party on Education Reforms.

President William Ruto has said the country’s education system will undergo immediate changes.

The proposals cover a wide range of crucial aspects, and if implemented, they have the potential to significantly transform the current educational landscape in the country.

  1. Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) to reduce learning subjects: Lower primary from 9 to 7, upper primary from 12 to 8, junior school from 14 to 9, pre-primary to have 5, and senior school to have 7.
  2. School capitation to be increased as follows: Introduce Capitation of Sh 1,170 for pre-primary; double capitation to Sh 2,238 for primary level; Sh 15,043 for junior school; Sh 22,527 for senior school (day); Sh 19,800 for special needs institutions (SNE) (day) and Sh 38,280 for SNE (boarding). The capitation and grants to be reviewed every three years.
  3. Implement a minimum essential package to cushion schools with enrolment below the optimum level. The recommended amounts are Sh 70,200 for pre- primary; Sh 537,120 for primary level; Sh 2,030,805 for junior school; Sh 3,041,145 for senior school; and Sh 1,890,000 for special needs education.
  4. Ministry of Education to adopt a Comprehensive School System (PP1 — Grade 9) comprising pre-primary, primary school, and junior school managed as one institution. Drop the term "secondary" from junior secondary and senior secondary school.
  5. Coordinate bursaries and scholarships under the Kenya Basic Education Bursaries and Scholarship Council.
  6. Introduce a mandatory three (3) months community service program for senior school graduates before joining tertiary institutions.
  7. Implement nine (9) months of mandatory community service after completing tertiary education. Issue a certificate of compliance as proof before entering the workforce.
  8. Discontinue the current categorization of public secondary schools (National, Extra-county, County, Sub-county), and adopt a categorization based on career pathways for senior schools.
  9. Implement a one-year mandatory retooling program for pre-service training graduates to be CBC-compliant, and a one-year internship before registration as teachers.
  10. Adopt a sustainable financing model for university education that combines grants/scholarship, loans and household contributions for differentiated categories of students as vulnerable, extremely needy, needy and less needy in order to address equitable access and inclusion in education.
  11. Enact the proposed Tertiary Education Placement and Funding Bill to amalgamate HELB, UFB, and TVET Fund for higher education funding efficiency.
  12. Institutionalize linkages of TVETs with industries and government projects; and develop pathways for continuity between TVET and Universities and vice versa.
  13. Develop guidelines for accelerated education programs for marginalized groups, learners with special needs, and adult and continuing education to enhance equitable access.
  14. Develop internal capacity of KNEC to print national assessments.


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