Historically the area has been inhabited by the Kalenjin and Bukusu people.
At its centre is the town of Kitale which is the capital and largest town. The county borders Bungoma to the west, Uasin Gishu and Kakamega to the south, Elgeyo Marakwet to the east, West Pokot to the north and the republic of Uganda to the Northwest. Trans Nzoia covers an area of 2495.5 square kilometres.
Historically the area has been inhabited by the Kalenjin and Bukusu people. After independence many of the farms vacated by white settlers were bought by individuals from other ethnic groups in Kenya.
The county is largely agricultural with both large scale and small scale wheat, maize and dairy farming. The county is referred to as the basket of Kenya for its role in food production in the country.
The county has five constituencies:
- Cherangani Constituency
- Kwanza Constituency
- Saboti Constituency
- Endebess Constituency
- Kiminini Constituency
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